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The Response Of Confined Concrete To Hard Impact (No. 9 Mar-00)

does metformin interfer with tramadol?, does metformin interfer with tramadol?, does metformin interfer with tramadol?, does metformin interfer with tramadol?, does metformin interfer with tramadol?, does metformin interfer with tramadol?. This work was presented by Sarah Prichard at the Inaugural Young Researchers Conference held by the Institution in London in March 1999 and won joint first prize – Ed

Until quite recently, buildings designed to resist impact loads were predominantly limited to those in the military sphere. With the advent of high speed vehicles, airborne missiles such as rockets and aircraft, and dropped drilling equipment damaging structures on the seabed, the scope for unforeseeable impact has widened substantially. However, it would be impractical to design all structures to resist impact loads, the probability of which is low compared to a normal loading situation. Thus, of necessity, special attention is given to the design of structures where the risk of impact is high or where structural failure as a result of impact could result in consequences disproportional to the severity of the impact. Examples of this would include aircraft collision with nuclear power stations or objects being dropped on large sub-sea oil storage caissons.

impact9a

Concrete is probably the most common and versatile of present day building materials and is used in many structures which are vulnerable to impact loading. ai???High strain rate loadingai??? occurs when a load is suddenly applied to a material, and the stresses and strains which it induces do not have time to equilibrate within the period of loading. It can result from impact or blast loads. Under these unusual forms of loading, the properties which concrete exhibits are different to those under static loading.

A low velocity hard impact drop-weight testing facility has been established in Trinity College Dublin. It allows cylinders of concrete to be impacted by a falling mass, weighing 82.5 kg, at contact velocities of up to 7.5 m/s (27 km/hr). Load cells measure the forces at the top and base of the concrete cylinder.

impact9bExtensive research is currently examining variables which might mitigate the effects of impact, including energy absorbing materials and a variety of reinforcing types. One option under consideration by the authors involves increasing the maximum compressive strength which the element can develop by maximising the benefits of confinement, using concrete filled columns. These have many advantages, the most obvious being that they require no formwork during construction as the hollow column encloses the concrete whilst it is being poured. However, another major benefit is that the casing provides bi-axial confinement and enhanced ductility to the concrete.

Research is underway to impact cylinders confined by sleeves of various materials, including steel, aluminium and PVC plastic. The two photographs illustrate the benefits of this confinement. The unconfined concrete cylinder disintegrated when impacted, whereas the steel confined cylinder only showed evidence of small radial cracks. Concrete filled sections are being increasingly used in structural engineering as a way of enhancing the strength and ductility of concrete columns. The present research is showing that this confinement could also be used as a way of enhancing the resistance of a structural element to accidental impact.

S.J. Prichard & S.H. Perry
Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin
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